Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Gemini Lucky Birth Gemstone

Astrologer: Abdul Basit Rathore
To know your lucky birth stone or lucky stone for any specific purpose contact us;
usually following are the lucky gemstones for Gemini are:
Emerald,
Topaz (white, yellow, golden),
peridot
Zard Aqeeq
jade






Taurus Lucky Gemstone

Follwing are the Lucky birthstone for Taurus:

Coral

Dur-e-Najaf

Diamond

To know more about gems or your horoscope contact

Astrologer: Abdul Basit Rathore        +923464387683







Aries Lucky Birth Gemstone

Follwing are the Lucky birthstone for aries:
Ruby
Coral
Agate
To know more about gems or your horoscope contact
Astrologer: Abdul Basit Rathore        +923464387683





Saturday, April 25, 2015

Big Size Coral Gemstone



17.85 ct
100 % guaranteed real coral gemstone
contact us to buy 
+92-346-4387683

Jade / Mrgaj Gemstone

In Urdu, Jade is called Margaj. For many centuries in ancient days, Jade was considered as the same type of gem. In the year 1863, Jade was accepted to have two forms - Jadeite and Nephrite. Both are used in jewellery. Jade substitute started spreading all countries from Europe. In ancient, Jade was used to make tools. In America, Jade is used for treatment of kidneys. Hence, this substitute is costlier then gold.

This sub-stone has the appearance as of emerald. Jade of green color is costlier then emerald.  Good quality of Jade is translucent. Jade is available in many colors. Like, light shades of yellow, pink, blue, and black. Some of them have a mixture of all these colors.

Importance of Jade in China:

Jade is used in every house of China. The idol of goddess Kuan Yin of China is made of this sub-stone. She is the goddess of kindness and compassion. She is the mentor of maternity and young children. Idol made of Jade saves a person from negativity in a magical way. It purifies the atmosphere of house and saves from evil spirit.

Jade Properties:

Jade is one of those substitutes which don not cause any sort of problem to the person wearing the gem nor they allow any negative energy to flow in a person’s body. So, anyone can wear this gemstone. This sub-stone is known as the symbol of love. In China, butterfly made of this gemstone is worn to attract the person you love. It is full of latent power and beauty.

This substitute is auspicious for people who want to have bright fortune. It increases balance, peace and wisdom in a person. It is a powerful and uncommon gemstone. It raises the consciousness of an individual. In ancient days, it was worn to protect oneself from snake bite. Jade is also worn for long and peaceful life.

In modern time, it is worn to make a persons dream come true. It gives person courage to fulfill his dream and helps a person to come out of deception. It is believed that keeping this substitute under pillow or bed keep the negative feelings away from entering in dreams.

Miraculous Properties of Jade:

Jade is also used for medicinal purpose. It brings relief to people suffering from epilepsy. It cures the problems related to kidney and stops the diseases caused to kidney. This gem is used for healing problems related to skin. It removes the deficiency of calcium. It purifies blood and saves from diseases caused to eyes.

Jade is good for the immune system. It gives relief from problems related to hairs. It helps in proper functioning of digestive system. People having problem of constipation should wear this sub-stone.

Who should wear Jade?

Everyone can wear Jade. A person should wear this sub-stone if mercury is the lord of the auspicious house but is in weak position in horoscope. It is also worn as substitute of emerald.



Thursday, April 23, 2015

How to Identify Real Pearls

Four Methods

Thinking of buying pearl jewelry? A few simple tests can help you determine whether your pearl item is a fake or real, cultured pearl or real pearl, plastic or real, man-made pearl or real pearl? Learn how to look and feel for the signs of a real pearl today and you'll never need to worry about falling for imitations again.


Method 1 of 4: Touch Tests
Rub the pearls against your front teeth. Hold one or two pearls between your thumb and forefinger and press them gently into the biting edge of your front teeth. Rub them against your teeth with a side-to-side motion. A real pearl will usually have a slightly rough or gritty texture from tiny scale-like imperfections in its outer layers of nacre. Fake pearls made from glass or plastic will usually almost perfectly smooth. You may want to brush your teeth before attempting this test to make sure they're clean. Food residue from a recent meal can give false results.

Step 2
Rub the pearls against each other. Hold a few pearls in your fingers and gently rub them against each other. Feel for the slight sensation of friction. Real pearls will usually generate a little friction when they rub against each other because their outer layers of nacre are not perfectly smooth.[2] Fake pearls, on the other hand, often have smooth coatings and will usually glide past each other when rubbed together.
Take a close look at your hands after this test. When two pearls rub against each other, their outer layers often erode a small amount. If you notice a fine, powdery, white residue after rubbing your pearls, this is probably powdered nacre — a sign that the pearls are real.

Step 3
Check whether the pearls are perfectly round. Because they're products of nature, every real pearl is slightly different, just like snowflakes or fingerprints. Most pearls won't be perfect spheres — they'll usually be slightly oblong or have minor defects. If your pearls look perfectly round to you, there's a good chance they're artificial.
It is possible for real pearls to be perfectly round. However, examples of these are very rare and usually fetch a high price.
Not sure whether a pearl is perfectly round or not? Try carefully rolling it on a flat surface. Imperfect pearls won't consistently roll in a straight line.

Step 4
Feel for coolness to the touch. For this test, you'll need a few pearls that have been sitting out — not ones you've been wearing. Hold the pearls in your hand and concentrate on the way they feel against your skin. Real pearls should feel noticeably cool for a few seconds before they warm up. The feeling is similar to what you'd get from stepping barefoot onto a marble floor.
Plastic pearls, on the other hand, will be about room temperature and will warm up more quickly.
Note: Good-quality fake glass pearls may still give the "cool" sensation. Verify your results with other tests if this is the first one you've attempted.

Step 5
Feel the weight of the pearl in your hand. Carefully bounce one or two pearls in your hand to get an idea of how much they weigh. Most real pearls feel somewhat heavy for their size. On the other hand, fakes (especially plastic pearls) will have a light, insubstantial feel.
For obvious reasons, this test isn't perfect — judging the weight of a few small pearls can be tricky. For best results, you may want to compare your pearls with a set you know are real or fake. Always verify with another test no matter how sure you are of a pearl's weight.


Method 2 of 4: Visual Tests

Step 6
Look for minor imperfections. As noted above, real pearls are only rarely "perfect". Usually, they'll have small blemishes or irregularities in their shape. Their outer nacre layer may also reflect light differently on different parts of the pearl. Imitation pearls are almost always "too perfect" — they look perfectly spherical; they have the same amount of luster on every part of the surface, and show no indents or imperfections.
While perfectly round real pearls are rare but possible, a necklace will almost never be made only from these types of pearls. A necklace made from pearls that all seem to be exactly the same smooth, round shape is almost certainly a fake.

Step 7
Check for a sharp, healthy luster. Luster is a way that jewelers describe the type of light reflected from a precious stone. A pearl's luster is part of what makes it so beautiful. Good-quality pearls should have a bright, clear luster that makes them shine when light hits them. If you look closely, you should be able to see your own reflection on the pearl's surface.
One problem with this test is that low-quality real pearls (which generally have a dull, "chalky" luster) can look similar to fake pearls. Check your results with a few of the other tests in this article.

Step 8
Check for an overtone. Good-quality pearls are often prized for their overtones — the subtle color that is visible on their outer surface when light hits them. Fake pearls will usually not have this overtone effect, which is tricky to duplicate. Thus, if your pearl seems very slightly shaded with color when a light hit is, there is a good chance its real. Rose and ivory are two of the most desired overtones for white pearls, though a wide variety of colors are possible, especially for dark pearls.
Since some real pearls don't have a visible overtone, not seeing an overtone on your pearl isn't necessarily a sure sign that it's fake.

Step 9
Look for clues around the drill hole. Pearls on a strand or necklace will usually have holes drilled in them for the string to pass through. Examining this hole carefully can help you tell whether your pearl is real or not. Specific things you'll want to look for include:

Well-defined edges to the hole:
Real pearls usually have drill holes with sharp edges (like a hollow cylinder). Fakes often have rough or rounded edges. However, old and well-worn real pearls may also have rounded edges to their holes. Fake pearls may also bow outward at the surface of the pearl, rather than being perfectly cylindrical.

Chipped paint or coating around the hole:
As fake pearls rub against each other with repeated use, their artificial coating can wear away around the holes. You may be able to see slivers of glass or plastic underneath. This is a sure sign of a fake.

Step 10
Look in the hole for a line between the nacre and nucleus. A real pearl almost always has a clear outer nacre layer, while fake pearls have thin layers of artificial nacre or lack them entirely. If your pearl has a drill hole, you can check for nacre by peering in with a magnifying glass. Real pearls will usually (but not always) have a noticeable line that separates the nacre from the nucleus (the inside part of the pearl).


Method 3 of 4: Advanced Tests

Step 11
Check for "scaly" surface patterning with a microscope. You can use a 30x jeweler's loupe, but microscopes with 64-power magnification or more work best for this. The surfaces of real pearls have a maze-like, scaled pattern. This patterning looks a little like a topographical map. It's this microscopic scaling that gives real pearls their "gritty" texture.
By contrast, fake pearls will often have a surface covered with grainy, fairly regular bumps (a little like the cratered surface of the moon).

Step 12
Compare your pearls to certified real pearls. All of the tests above are easier if you have some pearls that you know are real for comparison purposes. Try contacting a jeweler about the possibility of comparing your pearls to a set of ones that are certified real. Alternatively, borrow a friend or relative's real pearls to make your comparisons.
Use common sense about the sorts of tests you do with the certified real pearls. For example, you won't want to try the tooth test or the friction test with someone else's precious stones.

Step 13
Get your pearls appraised by an expert. If you are having a hard time determining your pearl’s authenticity, you can always take your pearl to a reputable jeweler or gemologist. These professionals have the tools, training, and expert eyes to tell whether your pearl is real (and, if it is real, how high its quality is). However, these options often don't come cheap — a basic appraisal can easily cost more than $100.

Step 14
Try ordering an X-radiograph test. This test, which an expert may do to determine whether your pearls are real or not, uses an X-ray machine. Real pearls will show up as a semitransparent grey color on the X-ray. Fakes will be solid white on the negative and solid black on the positive print.

Step 15
Try ordering a refractometer test. This advanced test measures how much light passes through the pearl to determine its authenticity. Pearls usually have a refractometer reading (called a "refractive index") of between 1.530 and 1.685. The difference between these two values (0.155) is called the pearl's birefringence, which affects the way the pearl looks in the light. These qualities tell an expert that the pearl is most likely a real one.


Method 4 of 4: What to Avoid

Step 16
Beware of using just one test to verify pearls. This bears repeating: any single one of the tests above can sometimes produce false results. To be sure of your results, perform many different tests.
As just one example of how isolated tests can be misleading, one source found that real pearls that have been specially polished can feel very smooth in the tooth and friction tests.

Step 17
Avoid the "burn" test. Some sources may recommend holding pearls in an open flame to determine whether they are fake or not. According to this rumor, fake pearls will burn or melt, while real pearls will be unaffected. The truth is more complicated. While most fake pearls will be damaged by fire, so will some real ones. Real pearls that have been processed with an artificial outer coating are especially vulnerable to flame and can suffer from blemishes, deformed drill holes, and ruined luster after just a few seconds in a flame.
In addition, it's worth noting that pearls conduct heat well and can become very hot when heated over an open flame. If you do attempt this test, take all necessary precautions to avoid bad burns.

Step 18
Don't fall for imitation pearls sold with exotic names. If a seller is trying to sell you on a pearl's name rather than its physical qualities, you may be getting ripped off. For example, "Mallorca" (or "Majorca") pearls, which are named after the exotic Mediterranean island of Mallorca but are entirely man-made, are sometimes sold to unsuspecting costumers.

Step 19
Don't ignore common sense instincts about a pearl's price. The price of a real pearl will vary greatly based on its size, shape, overtone, and other features. However, they will never be outright cheap. For instance, a necklace made from freshwater pearls (the cheapest variety of real pearls) can easily retail for several hundred dollars. If a seller is giving you a deal on a set of real pearls that seems too good to be true, it probably is.

As a general rule, you'll only want to buy pearls from licensed, certified jewelers and pearl retailers. Buying pearls from street vendors or pawn shops can be a risky proposition. See our pearl-buying guide for specific tips.


Natural Pearls


Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Popular Gemstone


ALEXANDRITE
Alexandrite is a variety of chrysoberyl that displays a colour change depending on light conditions and the angle it is view from (pleochroism).The ideal colour change would be fine emerald green to fine purplish red, but this is rare and expensive. Alexandrite was discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia in the 1830's, and named after tsaravitch Alexander, the future tsar. That area was mined for over 60 years and still today Russian Alexandrite is considered the best quality. Today, small quantities of Alexandrite are mined in Brazil, Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
Colour:Green in daylight and red-violet in incandescent light. 
Hardness: 8.5
AMBER
Amber is the fossilized resin from ancient forests. In ancient times the resin dripped and oozed down trees, filling fissures and trapping debris such as seeds, leaves, feathers and insects. The resin then became buried and fossilized through a natural polymerisation creating amber. The two main sources of amber in today's market are the Baltic states and the Dominican Republic. Amber from the Baltic states is older than that from the Dominican Republic is more likely to have insect inclusions. Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30-90 million years old. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal.
Hardness: 2.5-3
AMETHYST
Amethyst is a transparent purple quartz. Origin of name from the Greek -amethystos- "not drunken". Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote against drunkenness. Greek legend tells the story of a maiden Amethystos who was pursued a drunken god called Dionysus. She prayed to the goddess Artemis to remain chaste. The goddess granted her prayer, transforming her into a white stone. Filled with remorse Dionysus cried tears of wine over the stone turning it purple.
Different localities can produce a unique amethyst to that particular region or even to that particular mine. It is mined in Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina, Zambia, Namibia and other African countries. Very dark amethyst, mostly in small sizes, is also mined in Australia.
Colour:the colour range varies from pale lilac to deep purple.
Hardness: 7
AQUAMARINE
Aquamarine belongs to the gemstone family of Beryls. Origin of name Latin "aqua"meaning water and "mar"sea. Legend has it that Mermaids tails were made of aquamarine. Aquamarine is usually free of inclusions and possesses a superior brilliance. The more intense the colour of an Aquamarine, the higher its value.The principle supply of aquamarine stones comes from Brazil, Russia, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan 
Colour:pale blue to light greenish
Hardness: 7.5-8
BLOODSTONE/ HELIOTROPE
Bloodstone or heliotrope, is a form of Chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline quartz. Bloodstone is green jasper with red inclusions. The red is sometimes caused by iron oxide or red jasper. Origin of name: From the red spots looking like spots of blood. It is usually cut "en cabochon" (that is shaped and polished usually with a flat bottom and a convex top) or into beads, it is used as a sealstone and in signet rings. Bloodstone is found in Australia, Brazil, China, India and the USA (Wyoming). 
Colour: green with red inclusions 
Hardness: 7
APATITE
Apatite is part of the phosphate mineral group. Origin of name: From Greek apate meaning deceit alluding to its similarity to other more valuable minerals such as olivine, peridot and beryl. Apatite is found in different worldwide locations like: Russia, Canada, Mexico, Spain and Africa. 
Colour: varies from being transparent to opaque, with colours ranging from yellow, green, blue, violet and colourless.
Hardness: 5
N.B.This stone is very sensitive to heat and care needs to be taken.
CITRINE
Citrine is a form of quartz with ferric iron impurities and is rarely found naturally. Origin of name from the French word "citron" meaning lemon. Also called citrine quartz. Most commercial citrine is in fact heat treated amethyst or smoky quartz. Brazil is the leading producer of naturally mined citrine.
Colour: the different shades range from yellow, gold, orange brown shades of transparent quartz.
Hardness:7
N.B. Citrine and Amethyst are the exact same minerals, the only difference is the level of oxidation of the iron contained in the mineral. As this can be done artificially by heat or irradiation a large majority of Citrine sold today is heat treated amethyst. There are currently no scientific ways to determine if Citrine was changed artificially.
CORAL
Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum. The hard skeleton of red coral branches is made up of mostly calcium carbonate and is durable and intensely coloured. Coral can be polished to a glassy shine. Usually deep water corals have light colour and shallow water corals have deep colour. Coral jewellery has been found in ancient Egyptian and prehistoric European burials and continues to be made to the present day. Due to its softness and opacity, coral is usually cut as a cabochon or used to make beads.
Hardness:3.5
CUBIC ZIRCONIA
Cubic zirconia or CZ is a synthetic variant of the mineral baddeleyite which is extremely rare in nature. It is the oxide of the metallic element zirconium, zirconium dioxide. It was first used in the Russian space program to serve as a window to photograph through, it was not used in jewellery until 1969 when somebody decided to facet the material. It is often used as a diamond simulant. Cubic zirconia should not be confused with zircon, which is a rare naturally occurring gemstone. 
Colour: By adding other minerals in the creative process CZ's can come in any colour as well as the colourless variety. 
Hardness:8.25-8.75 
N.B. Key features that distinguish CZ from diamond:
Cubic zirconias have more dispersion than diamonds so show more fire.
A CZ has a Mohs rating of 8.5-9 and Diamonds have a rating of 10. 
A CZ is 1.7 times heavier than a diamond of equivalent size.
CZs are optically flawless whereas the majority of diamonds have inclusions or flaws 
CZ has a refractive index of 2.176, compared to a diamond's 2.417. 
CZ can be made in most cases entirely colourless: equivalent to a perfect "D" on diamond's colour grading scale but it is rare to find diamonds are truly colourless.
CZs are thermal insulators whilst diamonds are among the most efficient thermal conductors.
DIAMOND
Diamonds are a form of carbon. Origin of name: From Greek for invincible. Please click here to go to our more comprehensive section on Diamonds.
Colour: it is rare to find diamonds are truly colourless.
Hardness: 10.00
COLOURED DIAMONDS
Diamonds come in all colours but these natural Fancy Colour Diamonds are rare and can be very expensive. One out of 10,000 normal diamonds is a fancy colour diamond. The colour of a fancy coloured diamond is measured differently to a normal diamonds. The grading scale is based on the intensity of the colour. The GIA fancy colour grading scale is: Faint, Very Light, Light, Fancy Light, Fancy, Fancy Intense, Fancy Vivid, Fancy Deep and Fancy Dark.

EMERALD
Emerald is a valuable Beryl that owes its colour to chromium or vanadium, which make it the bright green. Origin of name emerald is said to be a Sanskrit word meaning green (Sanskrit is a classical language of India). Emeralds can have many inclusions and flaws so can be brittle and liable to break.The value of an emerald depends on cut, colour, clarity and carat. Clear stones with vibrant colour command the highest prices. It is found in Brazil, Pakistan, Russia, East Africa, India, Madagascar and Columbia, at this point in time the best emeralds come from Colombia.
Colour: Emeralds come in many shades of green and bluish green.
Hardness: 7.5-8
N.B. Many emeralds are treated to hide surface-reaching breaks and improve transparency.
FIRE OPAL
Fire opal is a bright orange variety of opal. 
It is primarily found in Mexico, so is often known as Mexican fire opal. Fire opal was known to the Aztecs between about 1200 to 1519 AD
Colour:Fire opals are transparent to translucent opals with warm body colors yellow, orange, orange-yellow or red.
Hardness:5.5- 6.5
GARNET
Garnets are nesosilicates. 0rigin of name: from ancient Greeks as colour reminded them of the pomegranate seed or granatum. Garnets do not show cleavage (the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces) so when they fracture under stress, sharp irregular pieces are formed. Because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some species are stronger than in others. The harder species are often used for abrasive purposes. It is found in the regions of Kenya, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Canada, USA, Czech Republic and Spain.
Colour: virtually all colours
Hardness:6-7.5
IOLITE
Iolite is a blue silicate mineral that occurs as crystals or grains in igneous rocks, Origin of name: from the Greek ios, which means violet. Iolite changes colours (pleochism) depending upon which angle it is viewed from and the gems are cut to take advantage of that. It is found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Australia's Northern Territory, Namibia, Brazil, Tanzania, Madagascar, Connecticut, and the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories of Canada. 
Colour: Transparent, violet-blue, light blue, blue, rich blue-violet stone
Hardness 7.5
IVORY
Ivory is a hard, white, opaque substance that is the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth and narwhal. Ivory had been used for thousands of years for tools, implements and weapons and for carving and jewellery. The 1990 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) put a ban on international ivory sales to lessen the threat to endangered species by poaching. A species of hard nut sometimes called vegetable ivory or "tagua" is gaining popularity as a replacement for ivory.
JADE
The term "jade"refers to two different, yet similar semi-precious metamorphic mineral gemstones, Jadeite and Nephrite. Nephrite and jadeite are resistance to breakage and chipping and due to their toughness they made a superior weapons and tools for early man. Not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials. Nephrite is usually only green and creamy white, while jadeite can have the full range of jades colours. Jade is mined in the regions of Canada, Australia, United States and Taiwan. 
Hardness:6
JASPER
Jasper is microcrystalline quartz and is made from very small grains, it is a semi-translucent to opaque. Jasper has been used for thousands of years as tools and weapons during prehistoric times and for ornaments and jewellery later. Origin of name from the Greek iaspis. Jasper is commonly found in the regions of North Africa, Sicily, France, India, Venezuela and Germany, USA etc. 
Colour: dark green,yellow, brown, green, yellow, red and white. 
Hardness: 6.5 to 7.5
JET
Jet is a hard gem variety of Lignite. Jet is a type of brown coal, a fossilised wood of an ancient tree similar to our present monkey puzzle trees and cypress trees. These trees flourished in the Jurassic period when the trees died and fell they were eventually washed into rivers and seas to lie at the bottom for millions of years. All the other sediment built up causing great pressure, which flattened the wood and together with chemical changes altered the wood to jet. Jet has been used in Jewellery since ancient times and Queen Victoria wore Whitby jet as part of her mourning dress making it very popular.
LAPIS LAZULI
Lapis lazuli is an opaque to translucent precious gemstone composed mainly of lazurite and calcite. Origin of name from the Persian "lazhward", which was the name of a place in modern Turkestan known for its deposits of lapis lazuli (“stone of lazhward”). The finest colour is intense blue, lightly dusted with small flecks of golden pyrite. Polished Lapis can be made into jewellery. In the past it was also ground and processed to make the pigment Ultramarine for tempera paint and oil paint. 
Colour: Deep azure blue to light blue, bluish green
Hardness: 5.5-6
LARIMAR
Larimar is a semi-precious blue variety of pectolite, Sodium Calcium Silicate Hydroxide. It was discovered in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic in the 1970's. The name "Larimar" comes from a combination of Larissa and Mar and was given to the stone by a Dominican who named the stone after his daughter Larissa and Mar, the Spanish word for sea. Although pectolite is found in many locations, none have the unique blue of larimar. This blue color, distinct from that of other pectolites, is the result of cobalt substitution for calcium.
Colour: pale blue to sky blue 
Hardness: 5
MARCASITE
In jewellery, iron pyrite used as gem is improperly termed "marcasite" Origin of name from Arabic or Moorish for pyrite. Pyrite and Marcasite share the same exact chemical make up; however they both differ in their interior structure." Marcasite" is frequently found in inexpensive silver jewellery and watches. It was fashionable and popular in Victorian and other times where it was often used to imitate diamonds. In better quality jewellery it is hand-set with grains or beads of metal from the setting being pushed over the edges of the stones." Marcasite" occurs world-wide and is easily found in the chalk near Dover, Folkestone, and the French side of the English Channel. 
Colour: metallic 
Hardness:6-6.5
MOISSANITE
Naturally occurring Moissanite was discovered in 1905 by Dr. F.H. Moissan, a French chemist and Nobel Prize winner and was named after him. Natural moissanite is very rare and is limited to iron-nickel meteorites. Virtually all of the moissanite sold in the world is synthetic. Synthetic moissanite is also known as silicon carbide after its chemistry (in industry moissanite is known as the man-made abrasive Carborundum). Moissanite is used as a diamond substitute as it is transparent and hard with a slightly higher refractive index than diamond. Moissanite jewels are cut to minimize their double refraction or birefringent effects. It is lighter and much more resistant to heat. This results in a stone of higher lustre, sharper facets and good resilience. Moissanite remains undamaged by temperatures used to melt gold. 
Colour:rarely clear to shades of very pale green. 
Hardness:9.5
MOONSTONE
Moonstone is the best known gem variety of orthoclase feldspar. It is usually polished as a cabochon. Its importance as a gemstone arises because of adularescence, a floating light effect and sheen, compared to the light of the moon. This phenomena results from alternating layers of two kinds of feldspar,which cause light to scatter. Moonstone specimens commonly exhibit chatoyancy (a mobile, wavering striped reflection), and sometimes display a strong cat's eye. 
Colour: most desirable colour of moonstone is blue, but it also occurs in grey, white, pink, green and brown. 
Hardness: 6 to 6.5  
MYSTIC TOPAZ
Mystic topaz is a treated clear topaz, it is not found naturally. To create mystic topaz, natural, colourless topaz is coated with a thin layer of titanium. The coating is only microns thick and is applied to the stones pavilion, the underside angled portion that typically forms the bulk of the gem. The specialized coating alters the stones natural refraction, creating rainbow colours, predominantly blues, greens, yellows, and small bursts of red shades.
N.B. this stone should be treated with care
ONYX
Onyx ia a chalcedony that occurs in bands of different colours. Onyx refers to a black and white banded variety of Agate and brown varieties are named Sardonyx. It is composed of relatively straight, parallel layers of different colours. This structure lends itself to cameo making. 
It is usually cut into cabochon, or into beads, and is also used for intaglios and cameos. Some onyx is natural but much is produced by the staining of agate. It is available in the regions of USA, Germany, Brazil, Mexico, India, and Africa. 
Hardness: 7
OPAL
Opal is a type of quartz. Origin of name: from Sanskrit (Sanskrit is a classical Indian language) upala = precious stone. They are luminous and iridescent with inclusions of many colours. Opals show a play-of-colour (a shifting of spectral colours)Opals are found in the regions of Mexico, Brazil, USA, Japan, Honduras, Kenya, Czechoslovakia, Peru, Canada but by far Australia is the main source of opals, almost ninety-five per cent of all fine opals come from the dry and remote outback deserts. 
Colour: White, black, red, orange, most of the full spectrum, colourless, iridescent. Very infrequently of a singular colour.
Hardness: 5.5- 6.5

PEARL
Pearl is a smooth, lustrous, chiefly calcium carbonate organic gemstones. Natural pearls are nearly 100% nacre, a protective mother of pearl coating that is secreted to protect the organism for a foreign body that has entered the shell. Natural or real pearls come mainly from oysters, although there are other bi-valve molluscs which can produce them. Almost any species of bivalve or gastropod is capable of producing pearls. However, only a few species, such as the famous pearl oysters, can create pearls which are highly prized. Cultured pearls are produced by artificially introducing a foreign object into the fleshy part of oysters, which become coated with nacre in a similar manner to natural pearls. Imitation pearls, simulated pearls, have been produced for many years. Pearls are found in the regions of Japan, China, Tahiti, Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, USA and Burma. 
Colour: white or cream, but the colour can vary according to the natural colour of the nacre in the various species of mollusc used. Can also be black or various pastel shades. Pearls (especially freshwater pearls) can be dyed yellow, green, blue, brown, pink, purple, or black
Hardness: 3.5 to 4.0 
N.B.To test if a pearl is natural, rub across your across the edge of your teeth; real pearl feels rough, simulated feel smooth.

PERIDOT
Is the gem quality variety of the mineral olivine. Origin of name either the Arabic word faridat meaning "gem" or the French word peritot meaning "unclear". Peridot is one of the few gem stones that come in only one colour. The depth of green depends on how much iron is contained in the crystal structure. It is found in the USA, Myanmar, Egypt, China, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. 
Colour: varies from yellow-green to olive to brownish green.
Hardness: 6.5 - 7
QUARTZ
Quartz is a crystalline rock or mineral composed of silicon dioxide. Quartz is the second most common mineral in the Earth's continental crust and found in all types of geological environment. There are 49 variety's, a number of which are gemstones, some of which are very beautiful and very rare. Origin of name from Saxon word Querkluftertz = cross-vein ore.
Colour: colourless, white, gray, yellow to brown to black, violet, pink 
Hardness: 7

RUBY
Ruby is the red variety of the mineral called Corundum which is composed of aluminium oxide (any other colour of corundrum is a sapphire, see below). The red colour is caused mainly by chromium and titanium. It is natural for rubies to have imperfections in them, including colour impurities and inclusions of rutile needles known as "silk. Origin of name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Some rubies show a 3-point or 6-point star or asterism. These rubies are cut into cabochons to display this effect. Natural occurring rubies are very rare and extremely rare in large sizes over 3 carats. They can be found in many regions around the world from India, to East Africa, to South America, the Hindu Kush and a few deposits in the United States. 
Colour: pinkish red or deep, rich red colour
Hardness: 9
N.B. Almost all rubies today are treated in some form (of which heat treatment is the most common practice) and rubies which are completely untreated and still of excellent quality command a large premium. Improvements used include colour alteration, improving transparency by dissolving rutile inclusions, healing of fractures (cracks) or even completely filling them.
SAPPHIRE
Sapphire is any colour of the mineral corundum other than red, those are called ruby, (see above) corundum is composed of aluminium oxide. Sapphires tend to be translucent or transparent and have high amounts of refraction. The most desirable sapphires are generally those with an intense blue colour with plenty of sparkle and life. Various shades of blue result from titanium and iron substitutions in the aluminium oxide crystal lattice. Some sapphires show a 3-point or 6-point star or asterism. These sapphires are cut into cabochons to display this effect. They can be found in Brazil, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Kashmir, Thailand, Madagascar and Australia 
Colour: Shades of blue. 
Hardness: 9
COLOURED SAPPHIRES
Sapphires are mainly known for their shades of blues, but they come in an assortment of colours. 
Colour: all colours across the spectrum including white and black. 
Hardness: 9
N.B. It should be noted that many Sapphires can be treated to enhance or change their colour. They are heated or irradiated to produce stronger colours such as greens, yellows or even blues. While the colour of Sapphires can be changed by intense heat and radiation, it is stable for daily wear jewellery.
SHELLS
Shells are organic minerals composed of calcium carbonate . Throughout the history shells of many types and from many different kinds of animals have been popular as human adornments. They are often used whole and drilled so that they can be threaded. The intricate design and varying colour patterns of shells is mainly dependent on the diet of the animal the shell covers. Mother of pearl or nacre is created by molluscs such as oysters and abalones secreting a substances that consist of calcium carbonate. Nacre is continually deposited onto the inner surface of the animal's shell creating the iridescent nacreous layer or mother of pearl. This is done both as a means to thicken, strengthen and smooth the inner surface of the shell. Mother of pearl has been used as decoration from buttons to inlays in furniture, jewellery and much more for thousands of years. Mother of Pearl can be found in many regions including Japan, Australia, Europe and the United States.
Colour: 
Hardness: 
NATURAL SPINEL
Spinels are composed of magnesium aluminium oxide. Most Spinel is formed due to intense heat from volcanic activity or hydrothermal underwater streams. Origin of name: from Latin spinella meaning little thorn, after crystal shape. Spinels next to ruby and the rare red diamond, is the most expensive of all red gems. With a hardness of 8 and no cleavage planes, natural spinel is a tough and durable gemstone suitable for any kind of jewellery. Unfortunately most Spinel that is sold commercially is synthetic. Sri Lanka, Brazil, Thailand, and United States are most notable sources of natural spinel. 
Colour: cobalt blue, red to blue to mauve. Dark green, brown, blackgreen, pink, deep pink with an orange tinge.
Hardness:8
TANZANITE
Tanzanite is part of the zoisite mineral species and is only found in East Africa. Discovered in 1967 in the Umba Valley near the Usambara Mts. in Tanzania. Tanzanite may be colourless, yellow-green, brown, or blue to violet when found; the crystals are heat treated to enhance their colour.
Colour:Tanzanite is noted for its remarkably strong trichroism, appearing alternately sapphire blue, violet, and sage-green depending on crystal orientation. (Trichroism is the property possessed by certain minerals of exhibiting three different colours when viewed from three different directions under white lights. However, most tanzanite is subjected to artificial heat treatment to improve its colour and this significantly subdues its trichroism. 
Hardness: 6.5
N.B: Tanzanite is a brittle stone and although it can be worn daily, care should be taken to protect it from knocks, pressure and extreme temperature changes. Do not use a home ultrasonic to clean jewellery with tanzanite
TOPAZ
Topaz is a fluorosilicate and can contain trace elements that cause different colours within the Topaz. Origin of name: from Greek Topazion, a Red Sea Island often covered in mist. Topaz wasn't really known about before the classical era, in the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone. Deposits of topaz are found in the regions of Russia, Siberia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Africa and China, Japan, Pakistan, Myanmar, Nigeria, Australia, Mexico, and in the United States. 
Colour: Varies in a broad range of: yellow, blue, pink, peach, gold, green, red, and brown. 
Hardness: 8 
N.B. Topaz is often heated to change or enhance it's colour.
TOURMALINE
Tourmaline is one on the most complex gemstones of the silicate group and there are 10 different varieties created by the dozen or more elements they contain. Origin of name: from Sinhalese turamali = stone of mixed colours. There are Tourmalines, which change the colour from daylight to artificial light and others display chattoyance(a mobile, wavering striped reflection).Tourmaline is found in Africa, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Namibia, Sri Lanka and USA. 
Colour: depending on the variety green, red to pink, light to dark blue, colourless, purple , neon blue, brown, black, red to green and green to red. 
Hardness:7-7.5 
N.B. Tourmaline may be heated to enhance it's colour.
TIGERS EYE
Tigers Eye is mainly composed of silicon dioxide, it is a form of quartz that acquires fine golden lustre when polished. Origin of name: the stone resembles the eye of a tiger. Tiger's eye is a semi precious stone with a rich yellow and golden brown stripes that display chattoyance(a mobile, wavering striped reflection). Tigers eye is found in regions of South Africa and Western Australia.
TURQUIOSE
Turquoise is composed of aluminium phosphate and copper. Origin of name: from French for Turkish stone as in ancient days it was transported through Turkey. It was very popular during the days of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Persia and known to man since at least 6,000 BC. Delicate veining, caused by impurities, is desired by some collectors as proof of a natural stone. Turquoise is found in the regions of Iran, southwestern United States, Africa, Australia, Tibet, China, Siberia and Europe. 
Colour: Blue, blue-green, green
Hardness: 5-6
NATURAL ZIRCON
Zircon is zirconium silicate, belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Origin of name: from Arabic zarqun and Persian zar = gold, gun = colour. Zircon is a natural forming mineral and it is not related to the synthetic diamond substitute Cubic Zirconium which is created in a laboratory. Zircon has a high refractive index and can be used to imitate diamonds. It is found in Australia, India, Brazil, and Florida, Cambodia, France, Myanmar, Thailand, Nigeria and Tanzania. Zircons found at Jack Hills in the Yilgarn Craton Western Australia are the oldest minerals found so far with an age of 4.404 billion years. 
Colour: Zircon can come in red, brown, yellow, green, black or colourless. The colour of zircons below gem quality can be changed by heat treatment. Depending on the amount of heat applied, colourless, blue and golden-yellow zircons can be made. 
Hardness: 7.5


Saturday, April 11, 2015

My Lucky Birth Stone

Aries

Coral, Ruby, Yamni Aqeeq


Taurus

Dur e Najaf, Pearl, Coral


Gemini

Emerald, Topaz (white, yellow, green, golden), Zard Aqeeq


Cancer

Pearl. Moon stone, Zard aqeeq, Cat's eye, Zard pukhraj, Sapphire, Sang e 

yashab


Leo

Ruby, Coral, Sun-stone, Agate, Sapphire, Sang e Maryam


Virgo

Emerald, Lapas lazuli, Opal, Yellow Agate Zabarjad, Hussaini feroza, jade, 

Dana Farang (Kidney stone), Sange yashab



Libra

Topaz (white, golden and yellow are most lucky)

Dur e Najaf, Cat's eye, Coral, Moon stone (white, pink, red)


Scorpio

Coral, Ruby, Agate (red and brown), Garnet, Moh-e-Najaf golden, Tiger


Sagittarius

Topaz, Emerald, Feroza, Cat’s eye, Peridot


Capricorn

Sapphire, Agate Yamni, Gaomedik, Pearl, Dur-e-Najaf, Lapis Lazuli


Aquarius

Sapphire, Agate Yamni, Lapis Lazuli,


Pisces


Topaz, Lapis Lazuli, Sang-e-Yashab, Dur-e-Najaf, Tourmaline